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Grammar&Semantics.Gr. is semantically expr. means, expresses diff. sem.
meanings. Gr. is a complex set of semantically charged regularities of
forming utterances of speech from the nominative means of l-ge. Since gr.
forms and regularities are meaningful, the rules of grammar must be stated
semantically, or they must be worded functionally. (ex: inverted w/o, its
meaningful functions  difference between meaningful&marginal idea,
emotive&unemotivemodes of speech, dif. types of style) Gr. elements of l-ge
present a unity of content & expression (or form & meaning).

Syntagmatic  &  Paradigmatic  Relations.  Beaudoin  de  Courtenay  (Rus.)  &
Ferdinand de Saussure (Swiss): showed  difference  betw.  Lingual  synchrony
(coexistence of lingual elements) & diachrony  (diff.  time-periods  in  the
development of lingual elements as well as l-ge as a whole) &  defined  l-ge
as a synchronic system of meaningful elements at  any  stage  of  its  hist.
evolution.   Lingual units stand to one another in 2  fundamental  types  of
relations: syntagmatic & paradigmatic. Syntagmatic relations  are  immediate
linear relations between units in a segmental sequence.  Ex:  The  spaceship
was launched without the help of a booster rocket.  Words,  word-groups  and
morphemes of words are  connected  syntagmatically.  The  combination  of  2
words or word-groups one of which is modified by the  other  forms  a  unit,
which  is  referred  to  as  a  syntactic  syntagma.  Notional  syntagmas:
predicative  (a   subject+predicate),   objective   (a   verb+its   object),
attributive (a noun+its  attr.),  adverbial  (verb/adj/adverb+adv.modifier).
The other type of relations, opposed to synt. And called  paradigmatic,  are
such as exist between elements of the system outside the strings where  they
co-occur. These intra-systemic relations &  dependencies  are  expressed  in
the fact that each lingual unit is included in a set  of  connections  based
on diff. formal and functional properties.

Levels of l-ge. 1) The lowest level  phonemic.Phoneme is not a sign, but  a
unit of a l-ge (lacks content). Its  abstract,  represents  by  a  sound  &
letter. Specific function    differential:  phonemes  distinguish  words  &
morphemes as material bodies, changes their meanings.2) Morphemic.  Morpheme
is a sign2 sides; the smallest meaningful part of a word. The smallest  -s.
F-tion  significative: m. express the signif. or  generalized  meaning.  M.
is a group  of  allophones.  Ex:  roots  (can  function  by  themselves-free
morph.) & affixes (suffixes, prefixes & inflections). 3) Lexemic. Lexeme  (a
word) in a l-ge performs a nominative () f-tion, it names objects  &
phenomena. 1 morpheme can be 1 word  (the  smallest).  4)  Denotemic.  A  w-
comb./phrase (denoteme) is a comb. of at  least  2  notional  w-s  connected
semantically. A comb. of a n.word & an aux. element is  not  a  phrase,  but
just a gram.form. (ex.has been done). F-tion  polynominative. Phrases  name
complicated things & phenom, give add. info.  about  qualities  of  objects,
circumstances. Phrases: free  (we  can  choose  elements  freely)  &  stable
(phraseological units). 5) Proposemic (a level of a sentence).  F-tions:  a)
Nominative (names a whole situation or  a  sit.  event)  &  b)  Predicative.
Predication is the connection betw. the subj.&  the  predicate  of  a  s-ce,
which form a predicative line. Predication is expr. through tense&mood of  a
verb. 6) Dictemic    level  of  topicalization.  (Blokh)  Unit    dicteme.
Utterance  supra-sentential construction. A dicteme is a comb.of 2/more  s-
ces which are united by common topic. Though there may be only 1 s-ce  in  a
d. f-tions: a) Nominative: names sit./sit.events.  b)Predicative  (see),  c)
F.of topicalozation (.) - main: each dicteme  presents  a  separate
topic in a continual text,   d)  Stylistic  (to  expr.the  attitude  of  the

The word & the morpheme. In studying the moroheme we study the word  in  the
necess.details of its composition&f-tions. The word is  a  basic  nominative
unit.  Without  words    no  com-tion   even   in   thought.    Bloomfield:
phoneme&morpheme are basic categories  of  ling.discription.  M.    minimal
meaningful segment. M.is a meaningful segmental component of the  word;  the
m.is formed by phonemes. The word is a nominative unit of of l-ge  built  up
by morphemes & indivisible into smaller segments as regards  its  nominative
f-tion. The morphol.system  of  l-ge  reveals  its  properties  through  the
morphemic str-re of words.

Traditional (functional) class-tion of morphemes. Henry  Sweet,  Smirnitsky.
Study of morph.str-re in traditional gr. -  2  criteria.1)  Positional:  the
analysis of the location of  the  marginal  morphemes  in  relation  to  the
central  ones.  2)  Semantic  (functional):  involves  the  study   of   the
correlative contribution of the morpheme  to  the  general  meaning  of  the
word. M-s at the upper level are divided into root & affixal  (lex.&gram.).A
lot of varieties of morphemic composition of modern  E.words,but  preferable
model   is:   prefix+root+lexical   suffix+gram.suffix.   Roots:   concrete,
material part of the meaning of the word, affixes   specificational  part
of the meaning. Specifications:  of  lexico-semantic  &  grammatico-semantic
character. Or 3 criteria: a) semantic  properties  of  words  (meaning),  b)
formal properties (form), c) functional (syntactic f-tion).

Distributional class-tion of  morphemes.  In  the  distrib.analysis  3  main
types of distribution are discrimin.:  contrastive  distr.,  non-contrastive
distr., and complementary distr. Contr.&  non-contr.distr.concern  identical
environments of different morphs. (Morph is combination of phones  that  has
a meaning, it happens only once) The morphs are said to  be  in  contrastive
distr. if their meanings (f-tions) are  different;  such  morphs  constitute
dofferent morphemes. Ex: returned/returning/returns. The morphs are in  non-
contrastive  d.  if  their  mean.(f-tions)  are   identical;   such   morphs
constitute free variants of the same  morpheme.  Ex:  suffixes  ed  &  -t
(learned/learnt), -s & -i (genies/genii). As for  complementary  distr.,  it
concerns diff.environments of formally diff.morphs which fulfill one  &  the
same f-tion; such morphs are termed allo-morphs. Ex: a few  allomorphs  of
the plural suffix: -en (children), -s (toys), -a (data),  -es  (crises),  -I
(genii), zero  (trout-trout).  The  application  of  distr.analysis  to  the
morphemic level-> cl-tion of m. on distr.lines.  a)  free  &  bound  m.,  b)
overt & covert m., c) additive & replacive m., d) continuous &  discontin.m,
e) segmental & supra-segmental m.

Synthetical & Analytical forms in Grammar. Gr.opposition    correlation  of
gr.forms  expressing  a  categorical  gram.  meaning  based  on   common   &
differential features of these forms. The means used for building up member-
forms of categorical oppositions are divided into synthetical &  analytical,
and so do the gram.forms. Synthetical   realized  by  the  inner  morphemic
composition of the word,  while  analytical  gr.forms  are  built  up  by  a
combination of 2/more  words,  one  of  which  is  a  gram.auxiliary  (word-
morpheme), & the other, a word of substantial meaning.  Synthetical  gr.f.
are based on inner inflexion (phonemic (vowel)  interchange;  non-productive
now, on ancient elements,  used  in  irregular  verbs,  some  nouns-plural),
outer  inflection  (productive,  gram.suffixation:  number,  case,   person-
number,   tenseparticipial-gerundial   forms,    the    comparisons),    and
suppletivity (non-prod., based on gram.interchange of word roots  (be-am-is-
are, go-went, good-better,  we-us;  +can-be  able    broader  morphological
interpretation). Analytical (typical  of  modern  E.)    a  combination  of
aux.word+basic word. Gramatically idiomatic combinations  (whose  relevant
gram.meaning is not dependent on meanings of their component elements  taken
apart). But: more, most  unidiomatic

Identification of parts of speech. The words of l-ge, depending  on  various
formal & semantic features, are divided into grammatically relevant sets  or
classes. Traditionally they  are  called  parts  of  speech  (lexico-gram.
series of words or categories).  Today  they  are  discriminated  ac.  to  3
criteria: semantic, formal &  functional.  Semantic  (meaning):  presupposes
the evaluation of the generalized meaning, characteristic of all words of  a
given part of speech. The meaning is understood as categorical  meaning  of
the p.of sp.. Formal (form): provides for the exposition  of  the  specific
inflexional & derivational  (word-building)  features  of  all  the  lexemic
subsets of a part of speech. Functional (function): concerns  the  syntactic
role of words in the s-ce typical of a part of speech.

Notional parts of speech in English. Acc.to  these  criteria  words  on  the
upper level are div.into notional (the noun, adj., numeral,  pronoun,  verb,
adverb), words of complete nominative mean.characterized  by  self-dependent
f-tions, & functional (the article, prepos., conj.,  particle,  modal  verb,
interjection). Noun: 1) meaning-substance  (thinfness),  2)  the  changeable
forms  of  number  &  case;  specific  suff.forms  of  derivation,  3)   the
substantive f-tions in  the  s-ce  (subj.,  obj.,  substantival  predicate);
prepositional  connections;  modiication  by  an  adj.  Adjective:  1)   the
categorical mean. of property (qualitative & relative), 2) forms of  degrees
of comparison (for qualitative adj.), spec.suff.forms of deriv.,  3)  adj.f-
tions (attribute to  a  noun,  adjectival  predicate).  Numeral:  1)  number
(cardinal-. & ordinal-.),  2)  narrow  set  of  simple  numerals,
sp.forms of composition for compound num.,  sp.forms  of  deriv.for  ordinal
num.,  3)f-tions  of  numerical  attr.  &   numer.   substantive.   Pronoun:
1)indication  (deixis),  2)narrow  sets   of   various   status   with   the
corresponding formal properties of categ.changeability &  w-building,  3)the
subst. & adjectival f-tions for dif.sets. Verb: 1)process (finite process  &
non-finite pr.), 2)of verbal categories of person,  number,  tense,  aspect,
voice, mood; opposition of  finite  &  non-finite  forms,  3)f-tion  of  the
finite predicate for the finite verb;  mixed  verbal-other  than  verbal  f-
tions for the non-f.verb. Adverb: 1) secondary property (i.e. of process  or
another property), 2)of  degrees  of  comparison  for  qualitative  adverbs;
sp.suffixal forms of derivation; 3) f-tions of various adv. modifiers.

Functional parts of speech.-Words of incomplete nominative  meaning  &  non-
self-dependent, mediary f-tions  in  the  s-ce.  Their  number  is  limited.
Article: expresses the  specific  limitation  of  the  substantive  f-tions.
Preposition: expr.the  dependencies  and  interdependencies  of  substantive
referents. Conjunction: expr. connections  of  phenomena.  Particle:  unites
the  funct.words  of  specifying&limiting  meaning.  Modal  verbs:  expr.the
attitude of the sp.to  the  situation.  Here  belong  words  of  probability
(probably, perhaps), of qualitative  evaluation  (un/fortunately,  luckily),
of affirm. & negation. Interjection: is a signal of emotions.

Syntactic classes of words (Ch.Fries). The syntactic (monofiggerential)  cl-
tion of words is based on syntactic featuring of words only.  The  syntactic
cl-tion  of  words,  in  principle,  supplements  the   3-criteria   cl-tion
specifying the syntactic features of parts of speech. For the Rus. l-ge  the
basic principles of the syntactic cl-tion of  words  were  outlined  in  the
works of Peshkovski. In English  the  syntactico-distributional  cl-tion  of
words was worked out  by  Bloomfield  &  his  followers  Harris  and  esp-ly
Ch.Fries. The synt.-distrib. Cl-tion of words  is  based  on  the  study  of
their combinability by means of substitution tests.  As  a  rezult  of  this
testing, a standart model of 4 main syntactic positions  of  notional  words
was built up.  These  positions  are  those  of  the  noun,verb,adj,&adverb.
Pronouns are included into the corresponding  positional  classes  as  their
substitutes. Words incapable to occupy the  said  main  syntactic  positions
are treated as functional words.

The three-Layer structure of vocabulary (M.Blokh). cl-tion of  the  lexicon
presenting some essential  generalizations  about  its  str-re.  Lexicon  is
divided into 2 parts: notional words & f-tional words.  The  open  character
of the notional part & the closed character of the f-tional  part  have  the
status of a formal grammatical  feature.  Between  them  there  is  also  an
intermediary field of semi-functional words. 1)The whole of the  lexicon  is
divided into 3 layers. 2)The 1st(upper) layer, of open character, is  formed
by 4 classes of notional words;  since  these  words  have  full  nominative
value,they may be referred  to  as  names:  respectively,  substance-names
(nouns), process-n.(verbs), primary property  n.(adj.),  secondary  property
n. (adverbs); 3) the names are consolidated into an integral system  by  the
lexical paradigm of nomination-the paradigmatic series whose  f-tion  is  to
form & distribute any given word root among the 4 lexical  class-types  (p-s
of speech); 4) the 2nd (intermediate) layer of closed char.,  is  formed  by
pronominal words or substitutes of names; here belong pronouns &  replacer
lexemes of all kinds (noun-,verb-,adj-,adv-replacers), w. of  broad  meaning
(thing, matter etc) & numbers; 5) the 3rd (lower) layer of closed char.,  is
formed by functional w.  proper,  or  specifiers  of  names:  determiners,
prep., conj., particles etc. The f-tion of 2nd & 3rd layers is  to  organize
together with the categorial means of  grammar,  the  production  of  speech
utterances out of the direct naming means of l-ge (the 1st layer).


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