Years of UN peacekeeping efforts
  - 40000
??? ??????: ??????

Years of UN peacekeeping efforts Years of UN peacekeeping efforts

                   Students Scientific Society Integral


Section: English Language

Author: Sokolova Olga, School #5, Form 11A

Supervisor:      Gorina Elena Vasilievna
                 English Teacher, 1st category,
                 School #5 with extensive English learning

                                  N. Tagil


1. Introduction                                               2
2. Origin of the UNO                                                3
3. The way UN works                                                 4
1. Main bodies                                                4
2. Security Council activity                                  6
4. UN activity                                                      8
1. UN peacekeeping missions                                   8
2. UN and human rights                                        12
3.    UN     humanitarian     assistance     to     developing     countries
5. Disarmament                                                15
1. UN activity in the sphere of disarmament                         15
2.       The       problem       of       Iraqi       military       arsenal
      5.2.1 Iraq/Kuwait conflict                                    17
      5.2.2. UNIKOM Establishment                              18
      5.2.3. Blitzkrieg                                             20
6. Conclusion                                                       23
7. References                                                       24
8. Appendixes                                                       25

                               I. INTRODUCTION

      Most people are familiar with  the  work  of  the  United  Nations  in
peacekeeping or in delivering humanitarian assistance to a far-off  country.
But the many ways in which the UN has a direct  impact  on  all  our  lives,
everywhere in the world, is not always so well-known.
      Now that world mass media reflect the news about the UNO in detail, it
is very challenging to  know  different  points  of  view,  and  I  took  an
interest in this problem. I heard about UN activity  but  didnt  reach  the
main point, like the majority of my  coevals,  who  are  familiar  with  the
events that concern the UNO but dont fully understand the essence of  them.
UN activity in preserving peace has attracted  me  most  of  all.  The  arms
race, disputes between nations, wars, military conflicts  have  turned  into
the real danger to the mankind. I think that people must stop  killing  each
other and end this violence. Ive chosen the UN  peacekeeping  missions  and
especially in Iraq as a specific example of UNs work.  It  is  very  urgent
                      II. ORIGIN OF THE UNITED NATIONS

      Day in, day out, the UN and its family of organizations work  together
and individually to protect human rights;  promote  the  protection  of  the
environment; help the advancement of  women  and  the  rights  of  children;
fight epidemics, famine, poverty. Throughout  the  world,  the  UN  and  its
agencies assist refugees and help improve  telecommunication;  deliver  food
aid and protect consumers; combat disease and help expand  food  production;
make loans to developing countries and help stabilize financial markets.  UN
agencies define the standards for safe and efficient transport  by  air  and
sea, work to ensure respect for intellectual property rights and  coordinate
allocation of radio frequencies. The UN's work has  a  long-term  impact  on
the quality of our lives.
      The name "United Nations"  was  devised  by  United  States  President
Franklin D. Roosevelt and was first  used  in  the  "Declaration  by  United
Nations"  of  January  1,  1942,  during  the   Second   World   War,   when
representatives  of  26  nations  pledged  their  Governments  to   continue
fighting together against the Axis Powers.
      The United Nations Charter was drawn up by the representatives  of  50
countries at the United Nations Conference  on  International  Organization,
which met at San Francisco from April 25 to June 26, 1945.  Those  delegates
deliberated on the basis of proposals worked out by the  representatives  of
China, the Soviet Union,  the  United  Kingdom  and  the  United  States  at
Dumbarton Oaks in August-October 1944. The Charter was signed on   June  26,
1945 by the representatives of the  50  countries.  Poland,  which  was  not
represented at the Conference,  signed  it  later  and  became  one  of  the
original 51 Member States.
      The United Nations officially came into existence on October 24, 1945,
when the Charter had been ratified by China, France, the Soviet  Union,  the
United Kingdom, the United States and by a majority  of  other  signatories.
United Nations Day is celebrated on October 24 each year.
                            III. THE WAY UN WORKS

      The United  Nations  is  an  organization  of  sovereign  nations.  It
provides the machinery to help find solutions to international  problems  or
disputes, and to deal with pressing concerns that face people everywhere.
      It does not legislate like a national parliament. But in  the  meeting
rooms and corridors of the UN, representatives of almost  all  countries  of
the world -large and small, rich and poor, with varying political views  and
social systems -have a voice  and  vote  in  shaping  the  policies  of  the
international community.
      The UN has  six  main  bodies  listed  below.  All  are  based  at  UN
Headquarters in New York, except the International Court of  Justice,  which
is located at the Hague, Netherlands.
      In addition, 14 specialized agencies, working in areas as  diverse  as
health, finance, agriculture, civil  aviation  and  telecommunications,  are
linked together through the Economic and Social  Council.  The  UN  and  its
specialized agencies constitute the UN system. Main bodies of  the  UN  are:
the General Assembly, Security Council, the  Economic  and  Social  Council,
the  Trusteeship  Council,  the  International  Court  of  Justice  and  the

                               3.1 Main Bodies
      The General Assembly
      The General Assembly, sometimes called the nearest thing  to  a  world
parliament, is the  main  deliberative  body.  All  185  Member  States  are
represented in it, and each has one vote. Decisions on ordinary matters  are
taken  by  simple  majority.  Important  questions  require   a   two-thirds
      The Assembly holds its regular sessions  from  mid-September  to  mid-
December. Special or emergency sessions are held when  necessary.  When  the
Assembly is not in session, its work  goes  on  in  special  committees  and
      The Assembly has the right to discuss and make recommendations on  all
matters within the scope of the UN Charter  -  the  Organization's  founding
document. It has no power to  compel  action  by  any  Government,  but  its
recommendations carry the weight of world opinion. The  Assembly  also  sets
policies and determines programs for the UN Secretariat, directs  activities
for  development,  and  approves  the  UN  budget,  including   peacekeeping
operations. Occupying a central position in the UN,  the  Assembly  receives
reports from other organs, admits new Members and appoints the UN  Secretary
- General.
      The Economic and Social Council
      Working under the authority of the General Assembly, the Economic  and
Social Council coordinates the economic  and  social  work  of  the  UN  and
related specialized agencies and institutions. The Council has  54  members,
and meets for a one-month session each year, alternating  between  New  York
and Geneva.  The  session  includes  a  special  meeting  at  the  level  of
ministers to discuss major economic and social issues.
      The Council oversees UN activities  and  policies  promoting  economic
growth  in  developing  countries,   administering   development   projects,
promoting the  observance  of  human  rights,  and  fostering  international
cooperation  in  areas  such  as  housing,  family  planning,  environmental
protection and crime prevention.
      The Trusteeship Council
      The Trusteeship Council was established  to  ensure  that  Governments
responsible for administering  trust  territories  take  adequate  steps  to
prepare  them  for  self-government  or  independence.  The  task   of   the
Trusteeship  System  was  completed  in  1994,  when  the  Security  Council
terminated the Trusteeship Agreement for the last  of  the  original  11  UN
Trusteeships  -  the  Trust  Territory  of  the  Pacific  Islands   (Palau),
administered by the United States. All Trust Territories have attained self-
government  or  independence,  either  as  separate  States  or  by  joining
neighbouring independent countries. The Trusteeship Council  will  now  meet
as and where circumstances so demand.
      The International Court of Justice
      The International Court of Justice (also known as the World Court)  is
the main judicial organ of the UN, settling legal  disputes  between  member
states and giving advisory opinions to the UN and its agencies. It  consists
of 15 judges, elected by the General  Assembly  and  the  Security  Council.
Only countries may be parties in  cases  brought  before  the  Court.  If  a
country does not wish to take part in a proceeding, it does not have  to  do
so (unless required by special treaty provisions), but if it accepts, it  is
obligated to comply with the Court's decision.
      The Secretariat
      The Secretariat works  for  the  other  five  organs  of  the  UN  and
administers their programs. With a staff of some  8,900  under  the  regular
budget, working at headquarters and all over the world, it carries  out  the
day-to-day work of the UN. At its head is the Secretary - General.
      He plays a central role in peacemaking, both  personally  and  through
special envoys. The Secretary - General may bring to the  attention  of  the
Security Council any matter which appears to  threaten  international  peace
and security. To help resolve disputes, the  Secretary  -  General  may  use
"good offices" to carry out mediation, or exercise "quiet diplomacy"  behind
the scenes. The Secretary - General also conducts "preventive diplomacy"  to
help resolve disputes before they escalate.
      In many instances, the Secretary - General has  been  instrumental  in
securing a peace agreement or in averting a threat  to  peace.  The  current
secretary general is Kofi Annan, who  succeeded  Boutros  Boutros  Ghali  in
1997 (see appendix C).
      Staff members are drawn from some 170 countries.

                        3.2 Security Council Activity
      The Security Council has primary responsibility,  under  the  Charter,
for the maintenance of international peace and security. It is so  organized
as to be able to function continuously, and a representative of each of  its
members must be present at all times at United Nations Headquarters.
      When a complaint concerning a threat to peace is  brought  before  it,
the Council's first action is usually to recommend to the parties to try  to
reach agreement by  peaceful  means.  In  some  cases,  the  Council  itself
undertakes   investigation   and   mediation.   It   may   appoint   special
representatives or request the Secretary - General to do so or  to  use  his
good offices. It may set forth principles for a peaceful settlement.
      When a dispute leads to fighting, the Council's first  concern  is  to
bring it to an end as soon as possible. It also sends United Nations  peace-
keeping forces to help reduce tensions  in  troubled  areas,  keep  opposing
forces apart and create conditions of calm  in  which  peaceful  settlements
may be sought. The Council may  decide  on  enforcement  measures,  economic
sanctions (such as trade embargoes) or collective military action.
      A member state against which preventive or enforcement action has been
taken by the Security Council may be suspended  from  the  exercise  of  the
rights  and  privileges  of  membership  by  the  General  Assembly  on  the
recommendation  of  the  Security  Council.  A  member   state   which   has
persistently violated the principles of the Charter  may  be  expelled  from
the United Nations by the Assembly on the Council's recommendation.
      The presidency of  the  Council  rotates  monthly,  according  to  the
English alphabetical listing of its member states (see appendix D).
      The Council has 15 members - five permanent members and 10 elected  by
the General Assembly for a two-year term.
      The following  countries  ended  their  two-year  membership  term  on
December 31, 1997:
Republic of Korea
      Each Council member has one vote. Decisions on procedural matters  are
made by an affirmative vote of at least nine of the  15  members.  Decisions
on substantive matters require nine votes, including  the  concurring  votes
of all five permanent members. This is the rule of "great power  unanimity",
often referred to as the "veto" power.
      Under the Charter, all Members of the United Nations agree  to  accept
and carry out the decisions of the Security Council. While other  organs  of
the United Nations make recommendations to Governments,  the  Council  alone
has the power to take decisions which member states are obligated under  the
Charter to carry out.
      Under the Charter, the functions and powers of  the  Security  Council
to  maintain  international  peace  and  security  in  accordance  with  the
principles and purposes of the United Nations;
to investigate any dispute or situation which might  lead  to  international
to recommend methods of adjusting such disputes or the terms of  settlement;

to formulate plans for the establishment of a threat  to  peace  or  act  of
aggression and to recommend what action should be taken;
to call on Members to  apply  economic  sanctions  and  other  measures  not
involving the use of force to prevent or stop aggression;
to take military action against an aggressor;
to recommend the admission of new members and the terms on which states  may
become parties to the Statute of the International Court of Justice;
to exercise the trusteeship functions of the United  Nations  in  "strategic
to recommend to the General Assembly the  appointment  of  the  Secretary  -
General and, together  with  the  Assembly,  to  elect  the  Judges  of  the
International Court.
                               IV. UN ACTIVITY

                        4.1 UN Peace-Keeping Missions
      United Nations peacekeepers, wearing distinctive UN  blue  helmets  or
berets, are dispatched by the  Security  Council  to  help  implement  peace
agreements, monitor cease-fires, patrol demilitarized zones,  create  buffer
zones between opposing forces, and put fighting on  hold  while  negotiators
seek  peaceful  solutions  to  disputes.  But  ultimately,  the  success  of
peacekeeping  depends  on  the  consent  and  cooperation  of  the  opposing
      The UN does not have an army. For each  peacekeeping  mission,  member
states  voluntarily  provide  troops  and  equipment,  for  which  they  are
compensated from a special peacekeeping budget.  Police  officers,  election
observers,  human  rights  monitors  and  other  civilians  sometimes   work
alongside military personnel in peacekeeping operations. Lightly  armed  for
self-defense  and often  unarmed    peacekeepers  strongest  weapon  is
their impartiality. They rely on persuasion and  minimal  use  of  force  to
defuse  tensions  and  prevent   fighting.   It   is   dangerous   business;
approximately 1,500 UN peacekeepers have died in the  performance  of  their
duties since 1945.
      Rank-and-file  soldiers  on  peacekeeping  missions   do   not   swear
allegiance to the  United  Nations.  Governments  that  volunteer  personnel
carefully negotiate the terms of their  participation    including  command
and control arrangements. They retain  ultimate  authority  over  their  own
military forces serving  under  the  UN  flag,  including  disciplinary  and
personnel matters, and may withdraw their troops if they wish.  Peacekeeping
soldiers wear their own national uniforms. To identify themselves as  peace-
keepers, they also wear blue berets or helmets and the UN insignia.
      The cost of UN peacekeeping personnel and equipment peaked at about $3
billion in  1995,  reflecting  the  expense  of  operations  in  the  former
Yugoslavia. Peacekeeping costs fell in 1996 and 1997, to  $1.4  billion  and
some $1.3 billion, respectively  and estimated budgetary  requirements  for
1998 are expected to drop to under $1 billion.
      All Member States are obligated to pay  their  share  of  peacekeeping
costs under a formula that they themselves have agreed upon. But  as  of  15
March 1998, member states owed the UN  $1.7  billion  in  current  and  back
peacekeeping dues. The United States is by far  the  largest  debtor,  owing
$958 million.
      Since 1945, there have been 48 United Nations peacekeeping operations.
There are currently 16 under way. Thirty-five peacekeeping  operations  were
created by the Security  Council  in  the  years  between  1988    when  UN
peacekeeping operations were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize  and June 1998:
      in Africa
      In Angola, UN mediation led to  the  1994  peace  accord  and  to  the
installation of a government of national unity in 1997, formally  uniting  a
country devastated by 20 years of civil war. A UN operation is in  place  to
help put the peace accord into effect. The  UN  also  continues  to  provide
humanitarian assistance to the Angolan people.
      In Somalia, after the outbreak of civil war in 1991,  the  UN  brought
relief to millions facing starvation and  helped  to  stop  the  large-scale
killings. From 1992 to 1995, two UN  operations  sought  to  restore  order,
protect delivery of humanitarian relief,  promote  reconciliation  and  help
reconstruction. Under difficult conditions, various UN agencies continue  to
provide humanitarian assistance.
      The UN  helped  secure  peace  in  Mozambique.  The  UN  Operation  in
Mozambique (ONUMOZ) was deployed in the country in 1992  to  help  put  into
effect the  peace  agreement  between  the  Government  and  the  Mozambican
National  Resistance.  ONUMOZ  monitored  the   cease-fire,   verified   the
demobilization of combatants, coordinated humanitarian aid and  observed  in
1994 the country's first multi-party elections, which led  to  the  peaceful
installation of a new Government. Today, the World Bank, the UN  Development
Program and other parts of the UN family are working with the Government  to
help  forge  the  economic  and  social  progress  needed  to  underpin  the
democratic process.

      in Asia
      The UN helped end the 12-year conflict in Cambodia and  organized  the
1993 elections that led to the installation of a  new  Government.  Earlier,
the Secretary - General had used  his  "good  offices"  in  the  search  for
peace, helping to  mediate  the  1991  peace  accord.  The  UN  Transitional
Authority in Cambodia was then deployed to supervise the cease-fire  between
the parties,  disarm  combatants,  repatriate  refugees,  and  organize  and
conduct the elections.
      In Afghanistan, mediation by a UN envoy led  to  the  1988  agreements
between Afghanistan, Pakistan, the Soviet Union and the United States  aimed
at ending the conflict. To help put  the  agreements  into  effect,  the  UN
deployed an observer mission, which also verified Soviet  troop  withdrawal.
The Secretary - General  and  his  envoys  have  continued  to  work  for  a
peaceful settlement  of  the  continuing  civil  war.  UN  agencies  provide
assistance to the some 2.3 million Afghan refugees. the Americas
      The UN has helped resolve protracted conflicts in Central America.  In
Guatemala, UN-assisted negotiations  resulted  in  the  1996  peace  accord,
ending a 35-year conflict during which over 100,000 people were killed.  The
UN began  supervising  talks  between  the  Government  and  the  Guatemalan
National Revolutionary Unity in 1991. In 1994,  two  agreements  opened  the
way to a settlement of the conflict, and led to the  deployment  of  the  UN
Mission for the Verification of Human Rights in Guatemala. The  Mission  has
remained in the country to help put into effect the peace accord.
      In 1990, the UN observed the  first  democratic  elections  in  Haiti.
After a military coup in 1991  forced  the  President  into  exile,  the  UN
mediated an agreement for the  return  to  democracy.  As  Haiti's  military
leaders did not comply with the agreement, the Security  Council  authorized
in 1994 the formation of a multinational force to  facilitate  the  leaders'
departure. After the landing of a United States - led  multinational  force,
the exiled President returned to Haiti in 1994.  A  UN  peacekeeping  force,
which took over  from  the  multinational  force  in  1995,  contributes  to
stability in the young democracy.
      In El Salvador, the  Secretary  -  General  assisted  in  peace  talks
between the Government and the Farabundo  Mart  National  Liberation  Front
(FMLN).  His  mediation  led  to  the  1992  peace  agreement  between   the
Government and FMLN,  which  ended  the  12-year  conflict.  A  UN  Observer
Mission monitored all agreements concluded between the parties and  observed
the 1994 elections.
      A UN mission deployed between 1989 and 1992 contributed to ending  the
fighting in Nicaragua. It helped  demobilize  some  22,000  members  of  the
Nicaraguan resistance (also known as  "contras"),  who  in  1990  turned  in
their weapons to the UN. Another mission observed the 1990 elections  -  the
first UN-observed elections in an independent country.
      Throughout Central America, UN specialized agencies and  programs  are
working hand in hand to ensure that  refugees  are  safely  repatriated  and
provided with the tools to start over. They also provide training for  civil
servants, police, human rights monitors and legal professionals  to  promote
good governance and the rule of law. Europe
      Following the 1995 Dayton-Paris peace  agreements,  four  UN  missions
were deployed to help  secure  the  peace  in  the  former  Yugoslavia.  The
largest of them, the UN Transitional  Administration  in  Eastern  Slovenia,
was established to govern this area and help reintegrate it into Croatia.
      From  1991,  the  UN  worked  strenuously  to  resolve  the  conflict,
providing at the same time relief assistance to some 4  million  people.  To
help restore peace, the UN imposed  an  arms  embargo  in  1991,  while  the
Secretary - General and his envoy  assisted  in  seeking  solutions  to  the
conflict. From 1992 to 1995, UN  peacekeepers  sought  to  bring  peace  and
security to Croatia, helped protect civilians in Bosnia and Herzegovina  and
helped ensure that the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia was  not  drawn
into the war.
      UN agencies continue to provide  humanitarian  assistance  to  over  2
million people still suffering the effects of the conflict. the Middle East
      The Middle East has been a major concern of the UN. In 1948, the first
UN military observer group monitored the truce called for  by  the  Security
Council during the first Arab-Israeli war. The first peacekeeping force  was
also set up in the Middle East, during the  1956  Suez  crisis;  it  oversaw
troop withdrawal and contributed to peace and stability.
      Two  peacekeeping  forces  are  deployed  in  the   region.   The   UN
Disengagement Observer Force, established in  1974,  maintains  an  area  of
separation on the Golan  Heights  between  Israeli  and  Syrian  troops.  In
southern Lebanon, a UN Force established in 1978  contributes  to  stability
and provides protection to the population.
      Hand in hand with peacekeeping, the UN has sought a lasting settlement
in the Middle East. Security Council resolutions 242 (1967) and  338  (1973)
set forth the principles for a just and lasting peace, and remain the  basis
for an overall settlement. Following the  1993  landmark  agreement  between
Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization, a UN Coordinator has  been
overseeing all development assistance provided by the UN to the  Palestinian
people in Gaza and the West  Bank.  The  UN  Relief  and  Works  Agency  for
Palestine Refugees in the  Near  East  (UNRWA)  provides  essential  health,
education,  relief  and  social  services  to  over  3  million   registered
Palestinian refugees.
      Military peacekeepers are the most visible, but not the only, UN peace
presence in the field. UN envoys and other civilian  personnel  are  engaged
in diplomacy, human rights monitoring and other peace efforts in  scores  of
regions threatened or afflicted by fighting  often  in  the  most  difficult

                           4.2 UN and Human Rights
      The Charter goals of justice and equal rights, for individuals and for
peoples, have been pursued by the UN from its early days.
      As one of its first tasks, the UN formulated the Universal Declaration
of Human Rights, a historic proclamation of the basic  rights  and  freedoms
to which all men and women are entitled - the right  to  life,  liberty  and
nationality, to freedom of thought, conscience and religion, to work, to  be
educated, to take part in government, and many  other  rights.  The  General
Assembly adopted the Declaration on 10 December 1948,  a  date  commemorated
every year as Human Rights Day.
      Two International Covenants adopted in 1966 - one on economic,  social
and cultural rights and the other on  civil  and  political  rights  -  have
expanded and made legally binding the rights set forth in  the  Declaration.
These three documents constitute the International Bill of Human  Rights,  a
standard and a goal for all countries and peoples.
      The UN has also put in place mechanisms to further human  rights.  The
UN High Commissioner for Human  Rights  coordinates  all  the  human  rights
activities of the UN, seeks to prevent violations, investigates  abuses  and
works with Governments in resolving violations.
      The UN Commission on Human Rights is the only  intergovernmental  body
that conducts  public  meetings  on  human  rights  abuses  brought  to  its
attention and reviews the human rights performance  of  all  Member  States.
Special reporters of the Commission monitor the  human  rights  problems  in
specific countries.
      UN missions are  monitoring  the  human  rights  situation  in  Haiti,
Guatemala and Eastern Slovenia (Croatia).
      The Security Council has established international  tribunals  to  try
persons accused of war crimes during the conflicts in the former  Yugoslavia
and in Rwanda. The tribunals have indicted several individuals  and  brought
a number of defendants to trial.
      Self-determination and independence.
      A fundamental right - self-determination, or the right of  peoples  to
govern themselves - was a goal when the Charter was signed.  Today,  it  has
become a reality in most of the lands formerly under colonial rule.
      In 1960, the General Assembly adopted the Declaration on the  Granting
of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, in  which  it  proclaimed
the need to bring colonialism to a speedy end. Since then,  some  60  former
colonial Territories,  inhabited  by  more  than  80  million  people,  have
attained independence and joined the UN as sovereign Members.
Today,  17  Non-Self-Governing  Territories  remain,  inhabited  by  some  2
million people. The Assembly has set the goal of ending colonialism  by  the
year 2000, declaring the 1990s the International Decade for the  Eradication
of Colonialism.
      Namibia's independence
      The UN helped bring about the independence  of  Namibia,  achieved  in
1990. The General  Assembly  in  1966  revoked  South  Africa's  Mandate  to
administer the  territory  -  a  decision  South  Africa  rejected.  Complex
negotiations led in 1989 to the implementation of the 1978 UN plan  for  the
independence of Namibia. The UN Transition  Assistance  Group  was  deployed
throughout Namibia to monitor the withdrawal of South  African  troops,  the
registration  of  voters,  and  the  1989  elections,  which  led   to   the
installation  of  the  first  independent  Government   and   to   Namibia's
      Election assistance
      To further democratization, the UN has  also  observed  elections,  at
Government request, in sovereign  member  states:  in  Nicaragua  and  Haiti
(1990), Angola (1992), El Salvador, South Africa and Mozambique  (1994),  as
well as the referendum on the  independence  of  Eritrea  (1993).  In  other
instances - such as Malawi, Lesotho and Armenia -  the  UN  has  coordinated
international observers provided by member states.
      Observers  typically  follow  the  preparation  and  holding  of   the
election; on election day, they are deployed to polling stations  throughout
the country, observe voting and vote counting, and issue a  final  statement
on the conduct of the election.
      Since  1992,  the  UN  has  provided  technical  assistance   in   the
preparation and holding of elections to over 70 countries. Such  assistance,
which may involve coordination and support,  advisory  services  and  short-
term observation, is instrumental in building the capacity of  countries  to
run their elections in the future.
      Apartheid applies to all aspects of life. Socially, blacks had to live
apart from the other races. Politically, they could not vote.  Economically,
they could work only in the lowest paying occupations.
      The UN helped to bring an end in  1994  to  South  Africa's  apartheid
(racial segregation) system. For more than three  decades,  the  UN  carried
out a sustained campaign against apartheid. The campaign, which ranged  from
an arms embargo to a convention against segregated sports events, helped  to
bring about a democratically elected Government in 1994,  through  elections
in which, for the  first  time,  all  South  Africans  could  vote.  The  UN
Observer Mission in South Africa assisted in  the  transition  and  observed
the  election.  With  the  installation  of  a  non-racial  and   democratic
government, the apartheid system came to an end.
      International law.
      The UN has made major contributions towards expanding the rule of  law
among nations through its  development  and  codification  of  international
law. The International Court of Justice has assisted  countries  in  solving
important legal disputes and has issued advisory opinions on UN  activities.

      The UN has initiated hundreds of  conventions  and  treaties  covering
virtually all areas of international  law  -  from  international  trade  to
environmental protection. Action  has  been  particularly  strong  in  human
rights law.
      For instance, the Convention  on  the  Elimination  of  All  Forms  of
Discrimination against Women is the main international legal  instrument  to
further  women's  equality.  The  Convention  against  Illicit  Traffic   in
Narcotic Drugs is the key international  treaty  against  drug  trafficking.
The Convention on the Law of the Sea seeks to  ensure  equitable  access  by
all countries to the riches of the oceans, protect them from  pollution  and
facilitate freedom of navigation and research.

           4.3 UN Humanitarian Assistance to Developing Countries
      When countries are stricken by war, famine or natural disaster, the UN
helps provide humanitarian aid. Part of this aid is in the  form  of  direct
assistance from the UN operational agencies and programs: The Office of  the
UN  High  Commissioner  for  Refugees  (UNHCR),  the  Food  and  Agriculture
Organization of the UN (FAO),  the  World  Health  Organization  (WHO),  the
World Food Program (WFP),  the  UN  Children's  Fund  (UNICEF)  and  the  UN
Development Program (UNDP).
      The Office of  the  UN  High  Commissioner  for  Refugees  (UNHCR)  is
responsible for the protection and assistance  of  over  26  million  people
around the world who have fled war or persecution, seeking at the same  time
durable solutions to their plight. In early 1997, UNHCR's  major  operations
were in the Great Lakes region of Africa, with over 1.4  million  people  in
need; the former Yugoslavia (over 2 million people); and western Asia  (some
2.3 million Afghan refugees).
      All UN emergency relief is coordinated  by  the  UN  Emergency  Relief
Coordinator, who heads the UN Department of Humanitarian Affairs.
      In 1996, the UN raised $1.3 billion for emergency assistance  to  over
22 million people around the world.

                               5. DISARMAMENT

                5.1 UN Activity in the Sphere of Disarmament

      Halting the arms race and  reducing  and  eventually  eliminating  all
weapons of war are major concerns of the UN. The UN  has  been  a  permanent
forum for disarmament negotiations, making  recommendations  and  initiating
studies. Negotiations have been held bilaterally and  through  international
bodies such as the Conference  on  Disarmament,  which  meets  regularly  in
      The General Assembly adopted in 1996 the Nuclear Test  Ban  Treaty,  a
landmark agreement that aims at banning all nuclear-weapon tests.
      In a major step in advancing non-proliferation, States parties in 1995
extended indefinitely the 1970 Treaty on the  Non-Proliferation  of  Nuclear
Weapons (NPT).  Under  this  Treaty,  nuclear-weapon  States  agree  not  to
provide  nuclear  weapons  to  other  countries  and   to   pursue   nuclear
disarmament;  non-nuclear  weapon  States  agree  not  to  acquire   nuclear
weapons. Concluded under UN auspices, the Treaty has been ratified  by  over
170 countries.
      Other treaties  have  been  concluded  to  prohibit  the  development,
production and stockpiling of chemical weapons  (1992)  and  bacteriological
weapons (1972); reduce conventional  armed  forces  in  Europe  (1990);  ban
nuclear weapons from the seabed and  ocean  floor  (1971)  and  outer  space
(1967); and ban or restrict other classes of weapons
      The United Nations proposed another disarmament agreement in 1972. The
100 nations that signed this Seabed Agreement agreed never to place  nuclear
weapons on the ocean floor. Both the Soviet  Union  and  the  United  States
were among the signers.
      In 1996, States parties strengthened a Protocol restricting  the  use,
production and transfer of landmines  silent killers that  slay  or  maim
some 20,000 people each year. According  to  the  UN,  there  are  some  110
million landmines in over 70 countries, and  2  million  new  landmines  are
laid every year.

      Mine Clearance
      The subject of mine clearance is one of critical importance  that  has
recently taken center stage in  the  forum  of  pressing  world  issues.  As
regards the  work  of  the  United  Nations,  the  process  of  demining  is
fundamental to the UN's ability to deliver programs effectively in  war-torn
countries or post-war environments, whether such undertakings be related  to
peacekeeping, humanitarian assistance or rehabilitation.
      Over the past seven years, the  need  for  mine  clearance  has  grown
significantly in a number of regions around the world. As a result,  the  UN
is increasingly called upon to operate  mine  clearance  programs  in  areas
that are completely infested with landmines and unexploded  ordnance  (UXO).
Consequently, prior to any large deployment of personnel or equipment  to  a
given  area,  the  UN  must  prepare  for  a  safe  working  environment  by
initiating preliminary mine clearance activities in  localized  areas.  Once
this has been completed, a broader operation can be accommodated to  conduct
mine clearance activities on a more comprehensive scale.
      The clearance of areas for use by a  supported  nation  is  undertaken
only when specially  mandated  by  the  Security  Council.  It  is  standard
procedure for the UN to not only performs mine clearance but also to  assist
a supported nation in the  development  of  its  own  sustainable  clearance
capacity. The UN program may include such topics  as  mine  awareness,  mine
marking, mine  survey,  mine  clearance  as  well  as  unexploded  ordinance
disposal. Additionally, the program's overall efforts may  go  beyond  mine-
specific issues to cover related areas, such as  management  and  logistics,
training and support.
      The UN may vary its approach to each situation as there are  currently
no standardized templates  or  universal  procedures  established  for  mine
clearance activities world-wide.

      Mine Clearance in the United Nations is  presently  divided  into  two
areas of responsibility :
      . which plans and advises on mine  clearing  activities  carried  out
        under United Nations auspices as well  as  maintains  contact  with
        Governments and organizations that participate in or contribute  to
        these activities.
      . which serves as the focal point for coordinating  all  humanitarian
        mine clearance and related activities.
      These two units work together to ensure a seamless approach to  United
Nations Mine Clearance Activities.

                  5.2 The Problem of Iraqi Military Arsenal

      One of the last UN operations on eliminating all weapons was connected
with the investigation of Iraqi arsenal, as there  were  some  data  proving
that Iraq possesses very dangerous weapons  that  might  be  lethal  to  the
      The  nation  of  Iraq  is  relatively  young;  the  country   achieved
independence in 1932. Since then, Iraq has been almost  perpetually  at  war
with its neighbors. Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait in 1990,  leading  to  the
1991 Persian Gulf War. Iraq has been  under  international  sanctions  since
the invasion and the United  Nations  refused  to  lift  them  until  it  is
convinced that Iraq has eliminated its  weapons  of  mass  destruction.  The
United States and  Britain  threatened  air  strikes  in  1998  over  Iraq's
refusal to allow UN weapons  inspectors'  free  access  to  all  sites.  The
United States and its allies patrol a no-fly  zone  over  northern  Iraq  to
protect Kurds from attack and in the south to protect Shiite Muslims.
      Almost all countries are concerned with Iraq's unwillingness to  allow
UN  inspectors  investigate  its  military  arsenal.  For  example   Swedish
diplomat Rolf Ekeus - who led the  UN  investigations  from  the  cease-fire
through the summer of 1997 and headed to Baghdad for talks, said  that  they
had declared everything. Iraq stated  that  no  documents  existed  in  Iraq
because they had been destroyed. That was  exploded  totally,  because  Iraq
itself  admitted  in  writing  even  that  it  had  been   lying.   Cheating
systematically from when we started in 1991  up  until  this  very  date  in
August of 1995.

      5.2.1 Iraq/Kuwait conflict
      To understand the essence of the conflict it is  necessary  to  descry
the reasons of  the  conflict.  Shortly  after  the  Iran-Iraq  War,  Iraqs
military dictator, Saddam Hussein, accused Kuwait of taking an unfair  share
of oil revenues. In August 1990 he made the claim that Kuwait was a part  of
Iraq and ordered his armies to invade and occupy Kuwait.
      The Iraqi invasion alarmed President Bush and other world leaders  for
three reasons. First, it was  an  act  of  aggression  by  a  strong  nation
against a weaker nation. (Iraq in  1990  had  the  fourth  largest  military
force in the world.) Second, the taking of  Kuwait  opened  the  way  to  an
Iraqi conquest of the worlds largest oil-producing  nation,  Saudi  Arabia.
Third, the combination of  Iraqs  military  power  and  aggressive  actions
would allow it to dominate the other countries of the Middle East.
      To prevent further aggression, President Bush ordered  200,000  troops
to Saudi Arabia, followed later by an additional 300,000. We have  drawn  a
line in the sand, said the president, as he announced  a  defensive  effort
called Operation Desert Shield. US troops were joined by other  forces  from
a UN-supported coalition of 28  nations  including  Great  Britain,  France,
Italy, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, and Egypt.
      Members of the UN Security Council, including both the  United  States
and the Soviet Union, voted for a series  of  resolution  concerning  Iraqs
aggression. One UN resolution demanded Iraqs unconditional withdrawal  from
Kuwait. Other resolutions placed an  international  embargo  on  trade  with
Iraq and authorized UN members to use force if Iraqi troops  did  not  leave
Kuwait by January 15, 1991. As  the  January  deadline  neared,  members  of
Congress debated whether or not  to  authorize  the  president  to  send  US
troops into combat in the Persian Gulf. Both houses voted in  favor  of  the
war resolution. [       ]
      The Gulf War had far greater significance to  the  emerging  post-cold
war world than simply reversing Iraqi aggression and  restoring  Kuwait.  In
international terms, we tried to establish a model for  the  use  of  force.
First and foremost was the principle  that  aggression  cannot  pay.  If  we
dealt properly with Iraq, that  should  go  a  long  way  toward  dissuading
future would-be aggressors. We also believed that the US should  not  go  it
alone, that a multilateral approach was better. [      ]

      5.2.2. UNIKOM Establishment
      On 3 April 1991, the Security Council adopted resolution  687  (1991),
which  set  detailed  conditions  for  a  cease-fire  and  established   the
machinery for ensuring implementation of  those  conditions.  By  resolution
687 (1991) the Council established a demilitarized  zone  along  the  border
between Iraq and Kuwait, to be monitored by a UN observer unit.
      On 9 April 1991, the Security Council adopted  resolution  689  (1991)
which approved the Secretary General's plan for  the  establishment  of  the
United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (UNIKOM). The UNIKOM  advance
party arrived in the area on April 1991. UNIKOM was established  to  monitor
the Khawr 'Abd Allah and the DMZ set up along the border  between  Iraq  and
Kuwait, and to observe any hostile or  potentially  hostile  action  mounted
from the territory of one State to the other.
      The  mandate  was  expanded  in  February  1993  by  Security  Council
resolution 806 (1993), with the addition of an infantry battalion, to:  take
physical action to prevent, or redress, small scale violations  of  the  DMZ
and of the boundary between Iraq and Kuwait; and problems arising  from  the
presence of Iraqi installations and citizens and their assets in the DMZ  on
the Kuwaiti side of the border. Since the  demarcation  of  the  Iraq-Kuwait
boundary in May 1993 by the United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Boundary  Demarcation
Commission, and the relocation of Iraqi citizens found to be on the  Kuwaiti
side of the border back into Iraq, the situation  along  the  DMZ  has  been
      From the Security Council on down, nearly  every  UN  diplomat,  along
with officials from many other countries,  will  not  stop  repeating  their
mantra: They want full and unfettered access to all sites in Iraq where  the
inspection team suspects weapons of mass destruction are  hidden.  And  that
is precisely what Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein has refused  to  do,  for  the
seven years that the inspection regime has been in force.
      President Clinton has managed to put the United States on  both  sides
of the diplomatic  fence,  repeatedly  insisting  America  is  making  every
effort to avoid violence, but is ready  to  use  U.S.  aircraft  and  cruise
missiles to pound Iraq into submission if necessary.
      The United  States  has  assembled  an  armada  in  the  Persian  Gulf
consisting of 30,000 soldiers, sailors, pilots  and  Marines,  20  warships,
and more than 400 attack and support aircraft. Although it  doesnt  compare
to the huge multinational force that went to war with Iraq in 1991,  neither
does the coalition.
      So far, only Britain and Canada  have  joined  the  United  States  in
sending forces to the area. Most of the nations that  supported  the  attack
in 1991 seem to feel that a military solution is too  unsubtle  a  tool  for
such a  delicate  diplomatic  goal,  and  that  the  Iraqi  people,  already
suffering under UN sanctions, do not  need  to  endure  another  baptism  by
      The demonstrations - never spontaneous and  always  state-organized  -
quickly became tedious affairs, with the same posters, the same chants,  the
same stunts.
      What's more, the UN Security Council more than doubled the  amount  of
oil Iraq can sell over six months in order to buy food, medicine  and  other
goods for its people suffering from devastating sanctions imposed when  Iraq
invaded Kuwait in 1990. At that time to put  pressure  on  Iraqi  forces  to
withdraw, the United States and the UN voted to  place  an  embargo  on  the
purchase of Iraqi oil. The resulting drop in oil  supplies  quickly  led  to
higher prices at gas stations all across the country.
      The vote was unanimous in the 15-member body.  The  new  programwhich
raises the permitted oil revenue from $2 billion to $5.256 billiondoes  not
go into effect until Annan evaluates and approves an Iraqi plan for how  the
goods should be distributed.
      Iraq has expressed irritation over the plan and delayed  the  previous
versions of it, citing what it called infringements on its  sovereignty.  UN
officials insist on the right to strictly monitor the aid  given  under  the
plan to make sure it reaches those who need it.
      U.S. opinion polls show support for attacks on  Iraq  remains  strong,
hovering in the 60 percent range, but a disastrous town  hall  meeting  in
Ohio on Wednesday suggested it was equally fragile.
      State Department spokesman James P. Rubin said families were not being
ordered to leave Israel and Kuwait, but that they were being allowed  to  do
so over concerns they may consider it prudent.
      Iraqis have in the past threatened to attack both Israel and Kuwait in
the event that Iraq is attacked. The United States this weekend  is  beefing
up forces in Kuwait, and Israel has been urgently distributing gas masks.
      The  probability  of  Iraq  resorting  to  the  use  of  chemical  or
biological weapons is remote, but it cannot be excluded, Rubin said.
      U.S. officials acknowledge that any attack on Iraq could hit  hard  at
civilians there.
      As a result  of  UNICOM  work  the  following  data  concerning  Iraqi
military arsenal were received.
|Missiles               |UN verified as         |UN believes may exist. |
|                       |destroyed              |                       |
|Missiles               |817                    |2                      |
|Warheads               |30                     |45                     |
|Launchers and launch   |75                     |0                      |
|pads                   |                       |                       |
|Chemical Weapons                                                         |
|Munitions (filled and  |38,537                 |31,658                 |
|empty)                 |                       |                       |
|Precursor chemicals    |3,000 tons             |4,000 tons             |
|Equipment for          |516                    |459                    |
|production             |                       |                       |
|Biological Weapons                                                       |
|Although the Al Hakam factory, capable of producing anthrax and botulinum|
|toxin, was raised, these and other agents have not been accounted for.   |

      5.2.3. Blitzkrieg1
      The events that took place December 16, 1998 shocked the  mankind.  US
and British forces launched  a  strong,  sustained  series  of  airstrikes
against Iraq early Thursday, targeting military and  security  installations
throughout the country. Pentagon[1] sources said about 200  cruise  missiles
were fired from ships and manned fighter bombers in the first wave  of  what
will be an open-ended  attack,  designed  to  degrade  Iraqs  ability  to
produce nuclear, chemical and biological weapons.  Clinton  accused  Hussein
of failing to live up to his commitment to allow unrestricted access  to  UN
weapons inspectors.  This  is  how  chief  CNN  International  Correspondent
Christiane Amanpour reported from a rooftop in downtown Baghdad: An  orange
plume of smoke wafted over the  city  after  one  of  the  loudest  bursts.
Allied missiles struck more than 50 separate targets during the first  wave
of bombing that began overnight on Wednesday.
      The military strikes  which came at night  followed  a  roughly  14-
month period during which Baghdad officials periodically said they would  no
longer cooperate with the weapons  inspectors.  During  that  time,  Baghdad
also repeatedly demanded that  crippling  international  sanctions,  imposed
after Iraqs invasion of Kuwait prior to the Gulf War, be lifted.  The  most
recent escalation in the ongoing weapons standoff came  in  early  November.
At that time, Western powers threatened military strikes against  Iraq.  The
threat was removed on November 14, when Baghdad agreed  to  cooperate  fully
with the weapons inspectors. But, US and British  officials  warned  Baghdad
that future airstrikes could come without warning  should  Iraqi  leadership
again refuse to cooperate with UNSCOM. To  back  up  their  threat,  Western
powers left in place the military might they had positioned in  the  Persian
Gulf, within striking distance of Iraq. It was that military  weaponry  that
was used on Thursday to conduct the strikes against Iraq.  A  stray  missile
from the allied attack on Iraq crashed into a  southwestern  Iranian  border
city Khorramshahr causing no casualties but prompting  a  strong  diplomatic
protest from Tehran.
      Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff  Gen.  Henry  Shelton  said  the
sites  hit  during  the  first  bombing  wave  included  weapons   of   mass
destruction and barracks belonging to the Iraqi  Republican  Guard.  US  and
British officials have said they will continue bombing  Baghdad  until  they
have achieved their goal which is not  to  destabilize  the  regime  but  to
decrease his capacity to threaten his neighbours.
      World communitys response was not unanimous. Many Russian politicians
expressed their negative attitude to the bombing.  Boris  Yeltzin  met  with
Evgeni  Primakov,  Russian  Prime-minister,  Nikolai   Bordyuzha,   Security
Council secretary and Anatoly Kvashnin, General  Staff  commander  where  he
claimed that Russia would demand conducting the UN Security  Council  summit
to  consider  the  situation  in  Iraq.  Egor  Stroyev,  Federation  Council
chairman said that the US and British bombardment of Iraq is  a  strike  not
on Iraq but on  public  opinion  and  above  all  on  UNO.  Russian  Foreign
Minister Igor Ivanov expressed  his  point  of  view  saying  that  military
action  ceasing  would  allow  to  renew  the  political  process  of  Iraqi
settlement. Moreover, he said that the report was  made  at  the  time  when
Iraqi leaders approved  of  their  readiness  to  collaborate  with  UNSCOM.
Russian   Ambassador   Yuli   Vorontsov   will   return   to   Moscow    for
      The only country that fully backed American  and  British  bombing  of
Iraq was Japan. Keidzo Obutti,  the  Prime  Minister  of  this  country  has
already received acknowledgement from the US  president.  According  to  his
opinion Iraq didnt  fully  cooperate  with  UN  officials.  Japan  that  is
connected with the USA by economic and military union as well  as  strategic
partnership always supports everything US does.
      Tony Blair, the British prime minister is expected to be backed by the
majority of deputies to the House of Commons.  He  said  the  attack,  named
Operation Desert Fox, was necessary because Hussein never intended to  abide
by his pledge to give  unconditional  access  to  UN  inspectors  trying  to
determine if Iraq  has  dismantled  its  biological,  chemical  and  nuclear
weapons programs. From morning some protesters-natives from  Arab  countries
 Syria, Pakistan and Iraq  held demonstrations  in  Trafalgar  Square  and
near prime ministers residence situated  in  Downing  street,  10.  British
people also fully agree with their government decision. Russian position  is
discussed by mass media. Moscow  is  said  to  have  too  little  assets  to
seriously affect the situation. Today Times  wrote:  Washington  made  it
clear that the arguments of  the  country  whose  economic  situation  fully
depends on financial assistance of Western countries wont stop him.
      Paris is reserved in its comments connected with  the  Iraqi  bombing.
France always adhered to diplomatic crisis regulation.
      NATO Ministers of Defense have gathered in Brussels to  discuss  their
position regarding the situation in the Persian Gulf. Nobody have  expressed
their wish to participate in military actions.
      The UN Security Council held a special debate Wednesday evening on the
military action. Diplomats said the meeting of the 15-nation  council  would
enable members to voice their views on the crisis,  but  no  council  action
was expected in the form of a resolution or  other  decision.  UN  Secretary
General Kofi Annan expressed regret  the  standoff  had  not  been  resolved
diplomatically. Richard Butler, UNSCOM chairman, ordered  UNSCOM  staff  out
of Baghdad. The entire staff was evacuated before dawn on Wednesday.
      Iraqi officials said at least 25 people had died and 75  were  wounded
in the Iraqi capital alone during two days of airstrikes.

      The UNO, established to replace the existing League of Nations,  faces
very  difficult  situation  in  connection  with  Iraqi   bombardment.   The
beginning  of  effective  Iraqi  resistance  came  with  a  rapidity   which
surprised us all, and we were perhaps  psychologically  unprepared  for  the
sudden transition from  peacemaking  to  fighting.  Some  say  that  Clinton
wanted to delay  the  floor  debate   and  vote  on  whether  he  should  be
impeached over his actions stemming from an affair with former  White  House
intern Monica Lewinski. Some questioned America's moral right to bomb  Iraq,
while others demanded that this time the US do the job properly and get  rid
of Saddam Hussein.
      But by doing so the USA and  Britain  have  violated  the  UN  Charter
according to which:  "All  Members  shall  refrain  in  their  international
relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial  integrity
or political independence of any state, or in any other manner  inconsistent
with the Purposes of the United Nations." [     ]
      Many political leaders doubt the necessity  to  preserve  the  UNO  as
there were drastic actions made by it. I think that the main reason  for  it
is that the USA is the main financial source of the UNO and  the  latter  in
its turn is not willing to lose it.
      In some way, my work can be continued as the events that happen in the
world change the situation greatly. The future will  show  whether  the  UNO
will be preserved or whether itll lose its unique character.

1. Basic Facts about the UN. Sales No E.95.1.31;
2. Bush G., Scowcroft B. Why We didnt Remove Saddam. Times, June 21, 1998;
3. Contreras Joseph, Watson Russel. Saddam Old Tricks. News Week, June 15,
4. Documents of the United Nations Department of Public Information;
5. Dr. Jan Azud Csc. The Peaceful Settlement of Disputes and the UN.
   Bratislava: Publishing House of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, 1970;
6. Inside UNSCOM: The Inspector. Transcript of interview with Charles
   Duelfer, Deputy Chairman of the UN Special Commission to Iraq.;
7. Iraq Bars UN Inspection Teams From Searching For Weapons. Copyright
   1998. The Associated Press.;
8. Malt Bill G. Parade of the Dead Babies. Times. August 7, 1998;
9. Nelan Bruce W. Selling the War Badly. Times, March 2, 1998;
10. Osmanczyk Edmund Jan. The Encyclopedia of the United Nations and
   International Relations. 2nd ed. New York: Taylor and Francis, 1990;
11. Peiser A., Serber M. U.S. History and Government. New York: Asmo School
   Publications, Inc., 1992;
12. Ritter Leaves Baghdad After Weapons Inspections. CNN News Release.
   March 10, 1998;
13. Saddam Hussein Freezes co-operation with UN inspectors. CNN News
   Release. August 5, 1998;
14. Scott Ritter Testifies In Senate. CNN News Release. September 4, 1998;
15. The UN Charter;
16. The World Book Encyclopedia. Chicago: Field Enterprises, Inc.
17. U.S. Reacts Sternly to Iraqs Rebuff of Inspectors. CNN News Release,
   December 9, 1998;
18. U.S., Britain Bombard Iraq. CNN News Release, December 16, 1998;
19. United Nations Iraq-Kuwait observation mission;
20. Wedeman Ben Iraqis protest, but against what?;
21. Western Forces Pound Baghdad in Second, Stronger Assault. CNN News
   Release, December 17, 1998;

Appendix A
                              CHARTER OF THE UN
      to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in
our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind, and
      to reaffirm faith in fundamental human  rights,  in  the  dignity  and
worth of the human person, in the equal rights  of  men  and  women  and  of
nations large and small, and
      to establish conditions  under  which  justice  and  respect  for  the
obligations arising from treaties and other  sources  of  international  law
can be maintained, and
      to promote social progress and better  standards  of  life  in  larger
      to practice tolerance and live together in peace with one  another  as
good neighbours, and
      to unite our strength to maintain international  peace  and  security,
      to ensure, by the acceptance of  principles  and  the  institution  of
methods, that armed force shall not be used, save in  the  common  interest,
      to employ international machinery for the promotion  of  the  economic
and social advancement of all peoples,
      Accordingly,  our  respective  Governments,  through   representatives
assembled in the city of  San  Francisco,  who  have  exhibited  their  full
powers found to be in good and due form, have agreed to the present  Charter
of the United Nations and do hereby establish an international  organization
to be known as the United Nations.
 Appendix B
                          The specialized agencies
The  International  Labour  Organization  (ILO)  formulates   policies   and
programs to improve working conditions  and  employment  opportunities,  and
defines international labour standards as guidelines for Governments;
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) works to raise  levels
of nutrition and standards of living, to improve  agricultural  productivity
and food security, and to better the conditions of rural populations;
The UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization  (UNESCO)  promotes
education for all cultural development, protection of  the  world's  natural
and cultural heritage, press freedom and communication;
The World Health Organization (WHO) coordinates programs  aimed  at  solving
health problems and the attainment by all people  of  the  highest  possible
level of health: it works in areas such as  immunization,  health  education
and the provision of essential drugs;
The World Bank group provides loans and technical assistance  to  developing
countries to reduce poverty and advance sustainable economic growth;
The International Monetary Fund  (IMF)  facilitates  international  monetary
cooperation and financial stability, and  provides  a  permanent  forum  for
consultation, advice and assistance on financial issues;
The International Civil  Aviation  Organization  (ICAO)  sets  international
standards necessary for the safety, security, efficiency and  regularity  of
air transport, and serves as the medium for  cooperation  in  all  areas  of
civil aviation;
The Universal Postal Union (UPU) establishes international  regulations  for
the organization and improvement  of  postal  services,  provides  technical
assistance and promotes cooperation in postal matters;
The  International  Telecommunication  Union  (ITU)  fosters   international
cooperation for the improvement and use of telecommunications of all  kinds,
coordinates usage of radio and TV frequencies, promotes safety measures  and
conducts research;
The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) promotes scientific research  on
the atmosphere and on climate change, and facilitates  the  global  exchange
of meteorological data and information;
The   International   Maritime   Organization   (IMO)   works   to   improve
international shipping  procedures,  encourages  the  highest  standards  in
marine safety, and seeks to prevent marine pollution from ships;
The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)  promotes  international
protection of intellectual property and fosters cooperation  on  copyrights,
trademarks, industrial designs and patents;
The  International  Fund  for  Agricultural  Development  (IFAD)   mobilizes
financial resources for better food production and nutrition among the  poor
in developing countries;
The UN Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) promotes  the  industrial
advancement of developing countries through technical  assistance,  advisory
services and training;
The   International   Atomic   Energy   Agency   (IAEA),    an    autonomous
intergovernmental organization under the aegis of  the  UN,  works  for  the
safe and peaceful uses of atomic energy;
The UN and the World Trade Organization (WTO), the major  entity  overseeing
international trade, cooperate in assisting  developing  countries'  exports
through the Geneva-based International Trade Centre.
Appendix C
      "I want an understanding that  will  help   my  mission  and  make  it
      Kofi Annan
      United Nations Secretary General
      Kofi Atta Annan, current Secretary General of the United Nations, is a
native of Ghana -- at the time of his birth, still a British  colony  called
the Gold Coast. He was born April 8, 1938, in Kumasi, the  descendant  of  a
prominent family of paramount chieftains of the Fante people..  Annan  began
his  education  at  a  Ghanaian  university,  then  completed  a  degree  in
economics at Macalester College in  St.  Paul,  Minn.  He  pursued  graduate
studies  in  Geneva  at  the  Institut  Universitaire   de   Hautes   Etudes
Internationales. Again in  the  United  States,  Annan  earned  an  M.S.  in
management at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
      By 1971, Annan had joined the United Nations.
      His experience includes positions as Assistant Secretary  General  for
Program Planning, Budget and Finance, head of human resources  and  security
coordinator, director of  the  budget,  chief  of  personnel  for  the  High
Commission  for  Refugees  and  administrative  officer  for  the   Economic
Commission for Africa.
      He was named Under Secretary General for  Peacekeeping  Operations  on
March 1, 1993. In the peacekeeping post he did, however, take  on  a  number
of delicate and complex jobs. He was sent to Iraq to negotiate  the  release
of hostages and the safe transport of a half-million Asian workers  who  had
become stranded in that area. As representative of the UN Secretary  General
in Bosnia., he negotiated his way among the four powers who  had  intervened
in Bosnia -- the United States, Britain, France and Russia.
      On the evening of December 13, 1996, Annan was named Secretary General
of the United Nations -- the first black African to hold the job.
      In the future, Annan will grapple with the problem of gaining  support
for the United Nations from  the  organisation's  sceptics,  especially  the
U.S. Congress.
Appendix D

|Membership and       |                     |                       |
|Presidency of  the   |                     |                       |
|Security Council in  |                     |                       |
|1998                 |                     |                       |
|Month                |Presidency           |Membership Term Ends   |
|January              |France               |Permanent Member       |
|February             |Gabon                |31 December 1999       |
|March                |Gambia               |31 December 1999       |
|April                |Japan                |31 December 1998       |
|May                  |Kenya                |31 December 1998       |
|June                 |Portugal             |31 December 1998       |
|July                 |Russian Federation   |Permanent Member       |
|August               |Slovenia             |31 December 1999       |
|September            |Sweden               |31 December 1998       |
|October              |United Kingdom       |Permanent Member       |
|November             |United States        |Permanent Member       |
|December             |Bahrain              |31 December 1999       |
|                     |Brazil               |31 December 1999       |
|                     |China                |Permanent Member       |
|                     |Costa Rica           |31 December 1998       |

Appendix E

      The United Nations was established in the aftermath of  a  devastating
war to help stabilize international relations and give peace a  more  secure
      The Nobel Peace Prize has  been  awarded  five  times  to  the  United
Nations and its organizations.
Appendix F
                               Country Profile
|        |General                                  |
|        |Size:               |437,072 sq. km      |
|        |Location:           |Middle East         |
|        |Population:         |21.4 million        |
|        |Government:         |Republic            |
|        |Leader:             |President Saddam    |
|        |                    |Hussein             |

|        |People                                   |
|        |[pic]Languages      |Arabic, Kurdish     |
|        |                    |(official in Kurdish|
|        |                    |regions), Assyrian, |
|        |                    |Armenian            |
|        |Major Religions     |Muslim 97% (Shi'a   |
|        |                    |60%-65%, Sunni      |
|        |                    |32%-37%), Christian |
|        |                    |or other 3%         |
|        |Ethnic groups       |Arab 75%-80%,       |
|        |                    |Kurdish 15%-20%,    |
|        |                    |Turkoman, Assyrian  |
|        |                    |or other 5%         |
|        |Growth rate         |3.69%               |
|        |Birth rate          |43.07 births/1,000  |
|        |Death rate          |6.57 deaths/1,000   |
|        |Fertility rate      |6.41 children/woman |
|        |Male life expectancy|65                  |
|        |Female life         |68                  |
|        |expectancy          |                    |
|        |Infant mortality    |60 deaths/1,000 live|
|        |rate                |births              |
|        |                    |                    |
|        |Economy                                  |
|        |[pic]Labor force    |4.4 million         |
|        |Unemployment rate   |N/A                 |
|        |Inflation Rate      |N/A                 |
|        |Gross domestic      |$41.1 billion (1995 |
|        |product (total value|est.)               |
|        |of goods and        |                    |
|        |services produced   |                    |
|        |annually)           |                    |
|        |Budget              |N/A                 |
|        |Debt                |$50.0 billion (1989)|
|        |Exports             |N/A                 |
|        |Imports             |N/A                 |
|        |Defense spending    |N/A                 |
|        |Highways            |45,554 km (1989)    |

Appendix G

                               Saddam Hussein
                              President of Iraq
[1] Blitzkrieg (Ger.)  lightning war, traced back to WW II

"Years of UN peacekeeping efforts" Ctrl+D
2005 Copyright,